Losing weight Tell me how old you are and I will tell you how to lose weight
Throughout life, the two struts or main elements for weight loss are nutrition and physical exercise. Although good habits must be applied from the earliest childhood, each age has its needs.
A common maxim is that “for proper weight control at all stages of life we must adjust the energy we eat with food to the amount of energy we consume with exercise
Schoolchildren and teenagers
For De Luna, “ the main obstacle to weight loss in childhood and adolescence is a sedentary lifestyle . Leisure time dedicated to activities that consume little energy – in general, related to technology – has increased dramatically in the last 10 years. Obesity is a major health problem, since it causes chronic diseases ( diabetes mellitus , hypercholesterolemia , osteoarthritis , etc.).
The more years of evolution obesity has, the more serious and more consequences it will have on health. Therefore, it is necessary to help the youngest to acquire health habits that include performing physical exercise on a regular basis ”.
A common mistake among teenagers is not having breakfast, believing that skipping a meal loses weight. “ Actually, the opposite effect occurs, the body tries to compensate for that lack of energy during the morning with a better use of nutrients at noon.
This causes a behavior of disproportionate hunger and appetite for hypercaloric foods in the food, establishing a hunger-satiety circuit that does not facilitate the return of the nutritional balance, ”says the endocrinologist.
In addition, it has been shown that prolonging fasting hours reduces academic and physical performance. In schoolchildren and adolescents it is advisable to allocate 20 or 25 percent of calories for consumption in the morning , distributing it, if possible, between breakfast and lunch mid-morning.
School schedules usually concentrate the physical and intellectual effort in the morning, so it is essential that the contribution of energy is adequate to the activity they are going to perform.
In youth, junk food is often abused.
At 20 years old
In the decade of the 20 “bad habits acquired during adolescence have been weighed down because the perception of one’s own health is still good. There is a bad habit of consuming fast food , with many calories and very few interesting nutrients, causing overweight problems, ”explains Felipe Isidro, coordinator of the Study Group of Physical Exercise and Obesity of the Spanish Society for the Study of Obesity (Seedo) . According to this expert, in Spain, at these ages, there is quite a prevalence of overweight (up to more than 10 kg above the ideal weight), and this condition will result in obesity if no remedy is put.
“The social environment at these ages (studies, entry into the world of work and having a partner) does not prioritize the practice of physical exercise. And when you practice it is more sport, like football or paddle , than exercise as such, ”says Isidro.
From 20 to 50 years
the main complaint of patients with excess weight is the lack of time, both for physical exercise and to plan meals, specifies De Luna.
What to do? “You have to change the lifestyle. It’s not about eating less, but about trying to eat better. In the same way, it is not necessary to move more, but to do it better. In short, do it effectively, ”says Isidro.
The expert in Nutrition of Quironsalud opens the age range and gives the following guidelines on the recommended exercise from 20 to 50 years: “The indications will be very variable depending on our physical condition, the presence or not of injuries and preferences and tastes of each person. In this sense, the key to achieving effective weight loss is regularity and progressive increase in intensity or duration of exercise. A false belief is to think that doing exactly the same type of exercise we will maintain a progressive weight loss. ”
De Luna details that as physical condition improves, training must be adapted to achieve the goal of body composition. “We will review the real time we have to exercise and if, in addition, we can do it in company or complement it with another activity on the weekend. Group activities are a good way to enjoy our free time. All this must be accompanied by an active daily life. ”
Biologically, the optimal point is reached at 25 years. From the age of 30 begins a “decline.”
Starting to do cardiovascular physical exercise is necessary in the thirties.
When you turn 30, there is a health concern because some signs of aging (such as wrinkles or hair loss) begin. Isidro mentions that “the positive thing is that people are becoming aware that care must be taken. Precisely for that reason there is less prevalence of obesity at this stage of life. On the other hand, habits that are not modified at this stage will cost a lot to modify them in the future. ”
Nutritionally, the main advice is to get away from fast food or garbage and consume natural products instead of processed ones. You have to eat some more protein, eating more lean white meat (fat free), milk, blue fish and eggs.
“At 30, the loss of muscle mass begins smoothly, reducing strength,” says Isidro. As an addition, osteopenia begins to appear in women. Hence the importance of starting physical exercise (cardiovascular, for example) leaving the sport little by little. “They have to practice exercises that work the strength of the muscle mass, such as squats, strides and thrusts (or push-ups) against the wall and floor.
It is very important to work on muscle mass when you turn 40.
At 40 years old
In the 40s, menopause appears and the problems derived from the hormonal change that it implies. Depending on the status of each female, you will have to carry out a nutritional change, incorporating calcium into your diet.
“Women with osteopenia do not assimilate calcium well because they do not have enough vitamin D3. This vitamin, in addition to being present in some foods, is found in the sun. That is why it is recommended to exercise outdoors . If this is not possible, you should start taking vitamin D supplements, ”summarizes Isidro.
Also, you have to do exercises that strengthen the bones . A good example is the jumps. “The ideal is to run , exercise with step , jump rope , do small squats with jump or stride also with jump, ” says this expert. Something that, in general, is unknown is that “from this age the woman has to reduce cardiovascular exercises, since its excess leads to a loss of muscle and bone mass. For example, you can do 3 or 4 days of strength exercises a week and 1 or 2 of cardio ”.
In men , who at this age already notice andropause due to the decrease in testosterone, it is “very important to work on muscle strength , assuming 80 percent of the exercise you practice. The rest must be cardiovascular, ”says Isidro.
Continuing with nutrition for men and women , the Seedo member advises raising protein consumption one more point . Specifically, in each decade of life, the protein intake must be increased between 0.2 and 0.4 grams per kilogram of weight. A very high protein breakfast could be an omelette with a whole wheat toast, instead of basing the first meal of the day on carbohydrates .
Not forgetting, as always, the consumption of whole carbohydrates, fruits , vegetables and white meat.
The accumulated visceral fat over the years in the male abdomen increases cardiovascular risk.
“The energy necessary to maintain the proper functioning of the body is gradually reduced from 50. The body composition changes and metabolic needs are reduced, being necessary to adapt the consumption of calories to energy expenditure,” says the specialist Healthcare
At these ages many men have already accumulated visceral fat in the abdomen area. This type of fat results in a rise in cardiovascular risk . “The good thing is that it is the first thing that responds with a nutritional change and physical exercise,” says Isidro.
In many women osteoporosis already manifests . That is why it is important to strengthen strength exercises and start doing others of joint mobility (stretching, water exercises and yoga and tai chí ).
“The difficulties for weight loss in this age group are similar to other stages, although other obstacles are added for physical exercise due to limited mobility or due to the appearance of other diseases (respiratory or cardiac pathologies)”, De Luna says, adding that special emphasis should be placed on preventing the loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia), which is very accelerated during periods of bedding. Early mobilization and active exercise will be essential, as well as ensuring a tight protein intake.
Balance exercises help the woman not suffer falls.
From 60 or 65 years old
At this stage of life “ problems may arise in chewing and swallowing . In easy-chewing and crushed diets, the contribution of carbohydrates (potatoes, pasta, rice …) is usually increased and protein consumption (meat, due to its difficulty in chewing; and fish, due to risk of choking with spines). Therefore, we must make dietary adaptations that ensure a correct protein intake , ”says De Luna. From the age of 60, protein intake should already be at 2 grams per kg of body weight, Isidro adds.
This expert considers it of vital importance to “exercise because the loss of muscle mass accelerates , becoming brutal. Therefore, both men and women have to strengthen their muscles. ”
In women it is essential to do balance exercises , practicing tai chí or vibrating platforms, to avoid falls and broken hip or femur.Advertisements